In the old days when people or goods had to be transported, horses were used to pull wagons and people pushed or carried loads as well. People did not have the necessary and efficient equipment & technology that enabled them to improve the process of transportation.
Automobiles started very shyly as trains were growing more economical and popular.
On-land transportation was growing and subways where build to run between far cities in virtually no time compared to before.
Railways constitute a strong and fixed path to transfer people and goods from different places in the whole country or continent, from tiny seacoast and mountain villages, to big cities.
Many trains exist in the present time, and speeds of 500 km/hr are attainable through magnetically levitated trains. Scientists are hoping to have trains run without a driver in the future for better and safer performance because the machine reflex to any sudden act is automotive and faster than any human reflex.
Personal transportation using cars started with wealthy people who were capable of getting such independency by having their own cars.
After that, the invention of the car assembly line by Henry Ford in 1908 made the car gain a commercial edge.
Soon after mid classes were capable of owning cars for personal use. Cars since then have developed tremendously to include safety features such as airbags and ABS systems, and on-board computers.
Moreover, complete highway systems are implemented in the US and France where the car runs on auto pilot, with the human driver as a backup.
When many people or heavy things had to be carried, boats were used as early as 3500 BC. Sail boats were efficient during that time for simplifying the act of moving from one area to another.
With the arrival of the steam engine in 1705, the speed at which ships traveled increased rapidly, whereas previously sailing speed was dependent on the wind speed and direction.
Submarine transportation evinmensly since the introduction of the first submarine in 1801, but the applications are largely military ones.
The tremendous innovation was the invention of the airplane.
The American Wright brothers were first to design and implement a successful sample of a real plane in 1903.
They proved that any free space could be occupied with useful materials. The birds are no more the kings of the skies as mankind is invading it.
Since then, the airline industry has come a long way, and the near future might hold orbital flights that travel much beyond supersonic speeds, providing very fast transportation, even faster than the 1000 km/hr of current commercial airplanes. With today's Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, airplanes can be landed on a predefined 1-cm2 spot, automatically. Future trends in airplane manufacturing involve the elimination of in-flight human accidental or unintentional errors.
While satellite based telephony services are available today, future air born communication networks will be installed on airplanes allowing continuous data communications with the Internet.