B-4-c- LINKING SOUTH AMERICA, AFRICA & THE PACIFIC
The year 1873 saw the founding of both the Brazilian Submarine Telegraph Company and the Western and Brazilian Telegraph Company.
While Brazilian Submarine was established with the goal of laying undersea cable from South America to Europe and the United States, the Brazilian Telegraph Company was created to lay cables between cities along the continent's coastline.
During the 1890s, the two companies worked together to link Brazil's main coastal ports and then connect them with the undersea networks of Great Britain and Europe. In 1899 they joined to form the Western Telegraph Company.
The British and the Portuguese cooperated in laying the first cable connecting points in Africa to the growing web of international telegraph cables. In 1880 a cable linking the east coast of Africa was completed: beginning in Aden, South Yemen in the Arabian Gulf the cables ran through Zanzibar, Mozambique, and ended near Durban, South Africa.
In 1885 the African Direct Telegraph Company was formed to lay a cable from Europe to the west coast of Africa. At the same time an existing cable to St. Vincent, Portugal was extended to Bathurst in Gambia and on to Freetown, Sierra Leone; Accra, Ghana; and Bonny, Nigeria. When the Boer War broke out in 1899, an additional cable was laid along the same route this time farther off the African coastline, in deeper waters, to prevent the possibility of sabotage.
The idea of laying a Pacific cable between Canada and Australia was first proposed in 1887, but it wasn't until 1901 that the Pacific Cable Bill received authorization from the British government and construction could begin. New Zealand was included in the link.
On December 8, 1902, the first transpacific telegraph cable began operating, stretching from Vancouver, British Columbia through the Fanning Islands, Fiji Islands, and Norfolk Islands with a stop in Brisbane, Queens land, Australia before landing in Doubtless Bay, New Zealand.