B-9- THE COMPUTER
        The first computer: It turns out that this is more than a question of definition than a question of fact. The computer, as we understand the word, was very much an evolutionary development rather than a simple invention. Several of steps that were started and continued to reach the picture of computers we are familiar in our days.
The whole story started in 1623 when Wilhelm Schickard first made his calculating clock. Followed him in 1668 was Sir Samuel Morland who produced a non-decimal adding machine.
By the year 1775, The third Earl Stanphone, Charles of England, made a successful multiplying calculator.
In the year 1820, Charles Xavier Thimas de Colmar made the first mass-produced calculator.
George Scheutz produces a small difference engine in wood in 1834 depending on the idea of difference engine prepared by J.H Muller in 1786. Scheutz, with the aid of his son, Edward, produced a 3rd order difference engine with a printer.
However, Babbage enhances the existing difference engine and designs a new one, which will operate on 7th order differences and 31-digit numbers.
In 1878, Ramon Verea invents a calculator with an internal multiplication table; this is much faster than the shifting carriage or other digital methods.
A great improvement occurs in 1886 with Dorr E. Felt who made his Comptometer. This is the first calculator where the operands entered merely by pressing keys rather than having to be dialed in.
In 1889 Felt invented the first printing desk calculator.
By the year 1890, US Cenus results were tabulated for the first time with significant mechanical aid. This is the start of the punch card industry.
First flip-flop circuit design published in 1919 by W. Eccles & F. Jordan.
In 1920, Eugene Carissan constructed a machine for factoring whole numbers, based on 14 rotating metal rings studded with pegs.
Derrick Lehmer who constructed a similar machine but based on 19-bicycle chains developed this machine in 1926.
Between the years 1931 and 1932, E. Wynn-Williams used hydrations tubes to construct a binary digital counter for use in connection with physics experiments.
Lehmer, in 1932, added an optical reader to his punched-film factoring machine to be capable of 5000 operations per second.
International Business Machines introduced the IBM601 in 1935, a punch card machine worth an arithmetic unit based on relays and capable of doing multiplication in 1 second.
George Stibitz constructed the K-model: a demonstration 1-bit binary adder using relays.
In the year 1938, Helmut Schreyer designed a logic circuitry based on combination vacuum tubes and neon lamps.
By the next year, John Atanasof and Clifford Berry completed a prototype 25-bit adder, which was the first machine to calculate using vacuum tubes.
Because there were no input devices at that time, the user had to enter the operands directly into memory, by tapping the appropriate capacitors with a wire. During the same year, Samuel Williams and Stibitz completed a calculator, which can operate on complex numbers.
Atanasof and Berry continued their work and completed in 1941 a special-purpose calculator for solving systems of simultaneous linear equations.
The following year involved Zuse completing he SI, the first digital computer for process control. Zuse invented a programming language called Plankalkul in 1945.
At the same time, Mauchy and Eckert and their team at the Moore school completed the ENIAC that was revealed to the public in the coming year. A panel of lights was added to help show reporters how fast the machine is and what it was doing.
In 1947, Aiken and his team completed the Harvard Mark II, which is a large programmable calculator using delays both for its 50 floating- point registers and for the arithmetic unit.
Freddie C. Williams and Thomas Kilburn completed a new type of digital memory during the same year.
Moreover, Wallace Eckert of IBM with his team completed the SSEC (Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator).
Also, Williams, Kilburn and their teams completed a prototype computer, which was the first machine that everyone could call a computer because it's the first with a true stored-program capability.
After that date with 6 years, the first transistorized computer was completed.
Compact circuits were being constructed between the years 1958 to 1961.
The first mouse-pointing device was created in 1963.
Year 1964 witnessed the first version Basic Programming language.
IBM built the first floppy dick in 1967.
The first 4004 Microprocessor was built in 1970.
In 1972, the first personal computer was developed for research.
The year 1975 was year when Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded Micro-Soft. In the coming year, Apple releases Apple I, Intel produces 8085 Processor and the first popular word-processing program was created.
In 1977, Apple released Apple II Plus, Intel produced 8088 Processor, and MicroPro released WordStar word processor.
By 1980, Hewlett Packard produced the HP-85, Apple releases Apple III, Seagate announced the 5.25-inch hard disk drive, and Microsoft XENIX OS was created.
The competition continues in arising and each company still presented new generations of its products in the following years:
- MS-Dos was released in 1982 with the Compaq portable PC.
- HP released its first LaserJet laser printer in 1984.
- Also, Apple released Apple Tic and IBM announces the professional Graphics controller card.
- In 1985, Intel introduced 80386DX processor and Microsoft windows 1.0 was released.
- In 1987, Apple introduced Macintosh II & Macintosh SE.
- In the same year, IBM introduces the Video Graphics Array (VGA) and Microsoft Excel spread
  sheet for Windows.
- In 1989, Intel produced the 486 Processor and followed it with Microsoft windows 3.0 in 1990.
- In 1992, Intel introduced the i486DX2 Processor and the PCI local-bus standard for personal
  computers.
- In the same year, IBM announced the PowerPC 601 and the 700claptop computer.
- In 1993, Intel produced the Pentium processor while Microsoft launches Windows NT 3.1 and
  Linus Torvalds developed Linux.
- In 1994 Iomega introduced the first Zip drive and Zip disks.
- In 1995, the famous Windows 95 was announced and Intel produced the Pentium Pro Processor.
- In 1996, Intel produced the 200 MHz Pentium processor and CD Re-writable. In 1997, Apple
  introduced Mac OS 8.0.
- In 1998, Intel introduced the 350MHZ and 400 MHz Pentium II Processor and it also announced
  the 266 MHz Celeron Processor. At the same time, Apple released the iMac and Windows 98 was
  introduced.
- In 2000, Apple released Power Mac G4 computer and Intel introduced the Pentium III Processor
  with clock speeds currently reaching 1 GHz. Windows 2000 is fighting Linux for the desktop
  operating systems.
- Finally, we are the era of Pentium IV reaching a limit over 3 GHz and Linux is an equal competitor
  to Windows.